Fr. Acteur Sp. Actor -> Agency, association, empire, factor, nongovernmental, state, system The environment of IR is typically described in terms of arenas and subarenas or, in other terms, factors. Within these areas and processes, there have emerged over time a variety of actors, whether conceived as units (states, inter-state organisations, and possibly nongovernmental associations and...

Fr. Anarchie Esp. Anarquía ® International, polyarchy, state, system, transnational In most societies, it is assumed that legal principles dictated by political authorities (the state or equivalent institutions) are necessary to ensure that social relations are not subjected to anarchy as the expression of spontaneous violence. Within polities, these authorities are generally centralized and...

Fr. Anthropocène Esp. Antropoceno → climate (change), ecosystem The concept of anthropocene emerged from the awareness that the earth has entered into a new geological epoch, born perhaps two centuries ago with the industrial revolution and powered by burning fossil fuels. It was anticipated by Vladimir Vernadsky, who first used the seminal concept of the ‘Biosphere’, which acknowledges...

Fr. Assabiya Sp. as(s)abiya (h) → Colonis(z)ation, empire, state Basic concept in Ibn Khaldun ‘s work (1332-1406), refers to a peculiar philosophy of history that replaces violence and peace within the dichotomous view of an urbanized, pacified core of empire confronted with its violent margins assimilated to “barbarians”. As a theorist of the Islamic state and medieval Islam, he...

Fr. Association → actor, civil society, commons, nongovernmental, public sphere A common feature of democratic societies, as noted by Beigbeder (1992), “NGOs can be created and operate independently of public authorities only in liberal and pluralistic societies,[...] that is in Western countries since the 19th century…. which implies a number of preconditions: independence from the state...

Aufhebung (Germ.) → cosmopolitical If some states may in any case gain in strength, like the United States in its “hyper-power” period, or a highly centralized, re-emerging China, other modern states will look for state partners to create what they think will be a safer world. Such developments have sometimes been qualified as “post-modern” entities, such as the European Union, or...

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